Struktur des Baurechts – relevante Rechtsvorschriften

Das Baurecht ist im Gesetz über Planung und Bau (Zakon o prostornom uredenju i gradnji), (Official Gazette 76/07, 38/09, 55/11, 90/11, 50/12, 55/12) im Abschnitt III geregelt. Über einen Link der Architektenkammer kann auf der Internetseite http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2007_07_76_2395.html das Gesetz in kroatischer Sprache aufgerufen werden.

Inhalte des Abschnitts III sind im Folgenden in kroatischer Sprache aufgelistet:

III. GRADNJA
3.1. Sudionici u gradnji
3.2. Projekti
3.3. Građenje građevina
3.3.1. Rješenje o uvjetima građenja
3.3.2. Potvrda glavnog projekta
3.3.3. Građevinska dozvola
3.3.4. Izmjene tijekom građenja
3.4. Posebni slučajevi građenja
3.5. Ostali posebni slučajevi
3.6. Prijava početka građenja i gradilište
3.7. Uporaba građevina
3.8. Uklanjanje građevina[1]

Der Bauvertrag (Construction Contract) wird im „Civil Obligations Act“ (Zakon o obveznim odnosima), Part Two, Special Part, Chapter 2, Contracts, Section 12 (im Englischen download ab Seite 151) behandelt, welches unter folgendem Link zu finden ist:
http://www.vsrh.hr/CustomPages/Static/HRV/Files/Legislation__Civil-Obligations-Act.pdf

Des Weiteren sind folgende für den Bau und die Bauplanung relevante Gesetze in englischer und kroatischer Sprache zu finden: [2] Zakon o prostornom uređenju i gradnji / Physical Planning and Construction Act (NN 76/07, 38/09, 55/11, 90/11, 50/12)
Zakon o arhitektonskim i inženjerskim poslovima i djelatnostima u prostornom uređenju i gradnji / Architecture and Engineer Works and Activities in Physical Planning and Construction Act (NN 152/08, 49/11)
Pravilnik o suglasnosti za započinjanje obavljanja djelatnosti građenja / Ordinance of Conformity for the Start of Building Activities (NN 43/09)
Pravilnik o uvjetima i mjerilima za obavljanje građenja / Ordinance on Conditions and Standards for Building Activities (NN 89/06)
Pravilnik o potrebnim znanjima iz područja upravljanja projektima / Ordinance on Necessary Know-How in the Field of Project Management (NN 45/09)
Pravilnik o jednostavnim građevinama i radovima (NN 21/09)
Act on Procedures and Building Requirements for Investment Stimulation, ( 69/09, 128/10)
Ordinance on design validation (98/99, 29/03)
Ordinance on the final inspection of construction works (108/04)
Act on construction products (86/08)
Ordinance on material and technical conditions relating to the work of building inspectors and supervisors (2/00)
Ordinance on requirements and criteria for granting authorisations for design audit (2/00, 89/00)
Ordinance on requirements and manner of keeping a site diary (6/00)
Ordinance on the manner of carrying out inspectional supervision by the buiding inspection
(9/00, 99/02)
Ordinance on design audit (89/00)
Ordinance on the type and content of designs for public roads (53/02)
Ordinance on the final inspection of construction works (108/04)
Technical Regulation on Thermal Energy Saving and Heat Retention in Buildings (79/05, 155/05, 74/06)
Ordinance on ensuring access to construction works for disabled persons and to persons with reduced mobility
Technical regulation for windows and doors (69/06)
Ordinance on requirements and criteria for granting authorisation for performing construction activities (89/06, 139/06)
Technical regulation for masonry structures (01/07)
Technical regulation on ventilation systems, partial air conditioning and air conditioning of buildings (03/07)
Technical regulation for chimneys in construction works (03/07)
Regulation on spatial projects and on construction works for which the location and/or building permit is issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
Regulation on modification of the Tariff from the Act on Administrative Fees
Technical regulation for wooden structures (121/07, 58/09, 125/10, 136/12)
Action Plan for implementation in Croatian legislation of the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings
Ordinance on the qualification examination and improvement of knowledge of persons performing physical planning and construction activities (24/08, 141/09, 23/11, 129/11, 109/12)
Technical regulation for protection systems against effects of lightning on construction works (87/08, 33/10)
Ordinance on technical approval for construction products (103/08)
Ordinance on conformity assessment, documents of conformity and the marking of construction products (103/08, 147/09, 87/10, 129/11)
Technical regulation on heating and cooling systems in buildings
Technical regulation on energy economy and heat retention in buildings (110/08, 89/09)
Technical regulation for steel structures (112/08, 125/10, 73/12, 136/12)
Ordinance on supervision of construction products (113/08)
Ordinance on the Requirements and Criteria to be met by Energy Auditors and Energy Certifiers of Buildings (113/08, 89/09)
Ordinance on simple construction works and works (21/09, 57/10, 126/10, 48/11)
Ordinance on granting authorisation for commencing with the performance of construction activities (43/09)
Technical regulation on composite steel and concrete structures (119/09, 125/10, 136/12)
Technical regulation for concrete structures (139/09, 14/10, 125/10, 136/12)
Technical regulation on low-voltage electrical installations (05/10)
Technical regulation on construction products
Ordinance on Energy Certification of Buildings
Ordinance on extension of the period for improvement of professional knowledge of persons performing physical planning and construction activities
Ordinance on the manner of calculating the surface area and volume in designs of buildings
Act on Proceeding with Illegally Built Buildings (86/12, 90/11)
Regulation on Fee for Retaining Illegally Built Buildings in Space (101/11, 98/12)
Ordinance on the manner of closing and marking of closed construction sites (47/12)
Ordinance on the manner of sealing tools, machines and other instruments for the work of the contractor at the construction site (47/12)
Ordinance on the official identity card and label of building inspectors/urban planning inspectors (47/12)

Eine Zusammenstellung aller relevanten Bauregeln und –gesetze ist unter folgendem Link zu finden:
http://www.mgipu.hr/default.aspx?id=8121

Das „Physical Planning and Construction Act“ (OG nos. 76/07 and 38/09) brachte wichtige Veränderungen in der Raum- und Bauplanung. Anlass der Gesetzesverabschiedung 2007 war es, das Baugenehmigungsverfahren zu vereinfachen. Für Gebäude mit einer maximalen Bruttogeschossfläche von 400 m² sowie für landwirtschaftliche Gebäude mit einer Bruttogeschossfläche von maximal 600 m² reicht nunmehr das Beantragen einer Baugenehmigung. Alle anderen Gebäude bedürfen zusätzlich einer sogenannten Lokationsgenehmigung / Standortgenehmigung.[3]

Im Gesetz über Planung und Bau (Zakon o prostornom uredenju i gradnji), veröffentlicht im Amtsblatt „Narodne Novine“ Nr. 76/07[4], werden folgende am Bau Beteiligte definiert:
Bauherr (investor)
Planer (projektant)
Nachprüfer (revident)
Ausführendes Unternehmen (izvodac)
Überwachungs- Ingenieur (nadzorni inzenjer)

Raumordnungsvorschriften (städtebauliche Flächennutzung)

Die Stadt- und Regionalplanung obliegt den Städten und Gemeinden.[5] Das Staatsgebiet ist in 21 selbstverwaltete Regionen aufgeteilt (20 Länder und die Stadt Zagreb), welche wiederum in 123 Städte und 423 Gemeinden unterteilt sind. [6] Das „Institute for Physical Planning“ des „Ministry of Construction and Physical Planning“ ist generell für die Raumplanung zuständig.[7] Auf Basis eines staatlichen 4-Jahresprogramm (National Physical Planning Strategy and Programme) werden regional adaptierte Entwicklungspläne herausgegeben. [8] Die konkreten Planungsdokumente sind: [9] Physical Planning Strategy and Programme of the State;
Physical plans:
physical plan of a county and the City of Zagreb;
physical plan of an area of special features;
physical plan for the development of a municipality and a town;
master urban development plan;
urban development plan; and
detailed development plan
Die Pläne bestehen jeweils aus einem kartografischen und einem textlichen Teil. Detaillierte Informationen zu den Strukturen und Abläufen in der Raumplanung sind unter folgendem Link zu finden:

http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/heritage/cemat/compendium/PlanningSystemCroate_en.pdf

Die Raumplanung / Regionalplanung wird in Kroatien durch das „Physical Planning und Building Act“ (Abschnitt II) geregelt („Zakon o prostornom uredenju i gradnji“), veröffentlicht im Amtsblatt „Narodne Novine“ Nr. 76/07[10] mit Überarbeitungen / Ergänzungen 38/09, 55/11, 90/11, 50/12. Das Gesetz trat am 1. Oktober 2007 in Kraft, mit Ausnahme des Art. 204 § 3 und 4, welche erst mit Beitritt Kroatiens zur Europäischen Union Geltung finden. [11] Das „Physical Planning und Building Act“ gliedert sich wie folgt (in kroatischer Sprache):

ZAKON O PROSTORNOM UREĐENJU I GRADNJI
I. OPĆE ODREDBE
PREDMET ZAKONA
POJMOVI
PRIMJENA DRUGIH PROPISA
OVLAŠTENJA MINISTRA
STRUČNI ISPIT
SLUŽBENA OSOBA OVLAŠTENA ZA VOĐENJE POSTUPAKA I IZDAVANJE AKATA
CILJEVI PROSTORNOG UREĐENJA I GRADNJE
1.1. Načela prostornog uređenja
II. PROSTORNO UREĐENJE
2.1. Subjekti prostornoga uređenja
2.2. Informacijski sustav prostornog uređenja
2.3. Dokumenti praćenja stanja u prostoru
2.4. Zaštićena područja od posebnog interesa za Državu
2.5. Dokumenti prostornog uređenja
2.5.1. Opće odredbe
2.5.2. Dokumenti prostornog uređenja u nadležnosti Države
2.5.3. Dokumenti prostornog uređenja u nadležnosti županije i Grada Zagreba
2.5.4. Dokumenti prostornog uređenja u nadležnosti velikog grada, grada ili općine
2.6. Postupak izrade i donošenja dokumenata prostornog uređenja
2.7. Provođenje dokumenata prostornog uređenja
2.8. Parcelacija građevinskog zemljišta
2.9. Uređenje građevinskog zemljišta
2.10. Urbana komasacija
2.10.1. Opće odredbe o urbanoj komasaciji
2.10.2. Komasacijska povjerenstva
2.10.3. Postupak komasacije
III. GRADNJA
3.1. Sudionici u gradnji
3.2. Projekti
3.3. Građenje građevina
3.3.1. Rješenje o uvjetima građenja
3.3.2. Potvrda glavnog projekta
3.3.3. Građevinska dozvola
3.3.4. Izmjene tijekom građenja
3.4. Posebni slučajevi građenja
3.5. Ostali posebni slučajevi
3.6. Prijava početka građenja i gradilište
3.7. Uporaba građevina
3.8. Uklanjanje građevina
IV. NADZOR
4.1. Upravni nadzor
4.2. Inspekcijski nadzor
V. KAZNENE ODREDBE
VI. PRIJELAZNE I ZAVRŠNE ODREDBE

Weitere Regelungen finden sich in dem am 24.12. 2008 veröffentlichten Gesetz „ZAKON O ARHITEKTONSKIM I INŽENJERSKIM POSLOVIMA I DJELATNOSTIMA U PROSTORNOM UREĐENJU I GRADNJI“ („Act on Architectural and Engineering Tasks and Activities in Physical Planning and Building“), (Narodne Novine 152/08). [12] Ergänzend sind folgende Rechtsvorschriften gültig:[13] Ordinance on measures for protection against natural disasters and war threats in spatial planning and development – consolidated text (29/83, 36/85 i 42/86)
Ordinance on the content, criteria for map projections, required spatial indicators and the standards of physical planning studies (106/98, 39/04, 45/04)
Decision on adoption of the Spatial plan of Kopački rit Nature Park
Decision on adoption of the Spatial plan of Učka Nature Park (24/06)
Regulation on designation of projects and construction works for which the location and/or building permit is issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
Ordinance on requirements to be fulfilled by physical planning institutes for the performance of physical planning activities (24/08, 19/10)
Ordinance on requirements and criteria for granting authorisation for performing professional physical planning tasks (118/09)
Decision on adoption of the Spatial plan of Lonjsko Polje Nature Park (37/10)
Ordinance on the official identity card and badge of urban development inspectors
Ordinance on municipalities allowed to adopt spatial development plans with abbreviated contents for the development of the municipality and on the contents, scale of cartographic presentations, and mandatory attachments of such plan
Ordinance on cessation of validity of the Ordinance on the contents, scale of cartographic presentations, mandatory spatial indicators, standards for spatial plan studies and mandatory attachments to spatial plans (9/11)
Decision on adoption of the Spatial plan of the area of special features of the multipurpose Danube-Sava canal
Ordinance on the contents and required spatial indicators in reports on the spatial status (117/12)

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